Question 1: NIST Cloud Definition

Questions- Answers
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Question 1: NIST Cloud Definition
NIST SP800-145 lists five essential characteristics of cloud computing.
(a) Argue Amazon Web Services (AWS) meets these characteristics. Address each characteristic, and discuss an AWS service feature that suggests it is met. Answer There are five essential characteristics of cloud computing of NIST SP800-145: “on-demand self-service, broad network access, resource pooling, rapid elasticity or expansion, and measured service.” (Pedro Hernandez, 2014). It is the part of three “service representation” (system, stage and structure), and four “deployment representation” which is jointly classify behavior to convey cloud facility. Here we discuss either AWS meets these characteristics or not. The AWS service is planned to provide like a revenue for broad evaluation of cloud services and deployment plan, and to offer a baseline for argument from what is AWS to how to good use cloud computing. “When agencies or companies use this definition,”, (Pedro Hernandez, 2014)”they have a technique to decide the amount to which the detail knowledge implementations they are consider gather the cloud characteristics and structures. This is significant as adopt a reliable cloud, they are further possible to gather the promise settlement of cloud—reduce cost, reduce energy, fast consumption and consumer empowerment and identical an execution to the cloud definition may help in assess the protection possessions of the cloud.” (b) A medium-sized, geographically-localized agency has just removed all its workers’ desktops and replaced these with thin clients, backed by a virtual desktop infrastructure (VDI). All workers have a common work schedule (i.e., 0800-1700). Argue this does not meet NIST’s definition in terms of essential characteristics, noting which characteristics this deployment of VDI likely has, and which it likely does not. Answer As we discuss before that this cloud representation is collected of five essential characteristics On-demand self-service, Broad network access, Resource pooling, Rapid elasticity and Measured Service. According to given scenario, from a developer perspective, cloud computing let you to flexibly distribute included satisfied, request, and services to any tool, wherever, anytime, in an effortlessly scalable structure, using and paying for simply the income you want, when you want them. They don’t meet two characteristics On-demand self-service and Measured Service while Broad network access, resource pooling and rapid elasticity are meet according to scenario. From an IT viewpoint, cloud computing let association to free them from have to obtain and assign classy hardware, software, and networking capital, or use big panel to direct and maintain infrastructure. From a business viewpoint, cloud computing allow source to serve company of every volume, mainly SMBs. References: Pedro Hernandez. (2014). Backblaze Debuts Open Source Storage Pod 4.0.
Question 2: Metadata
“Separating data from metadata is an essential abstraction that facilitates
scalable, replicated storage.”
Defend this view, giving examples from systems that we’ve studied. Don’t just recognize and repeat this pattern as found in other systems; actually explain how it makes the design simpler (i.e., assume it wasn’t true and explain the complexity that would need to be added to the system).
We assume it wasn’t true and explain the complexity that would need to be added to the system:
• Protection/management of fixed data by external metadata basis.
• Is technique accessible to simply run and authorize batch inform?
• Special metadata maintain, distinct metadata system with different “levels” of report (set, sequence, item, file)
• Several foundation of metadata to describe from
• Whole nonappearance of item-level (or file-level) metadata
• Un access of metadata by time of making
• Incapability to copy metadata from basis
Workflow problems: how frequently to inform? How do we recognize to update fixed metadata if outside metadata and image records (and many implanted metadata they hold) are maintained with distinct custodial group?
Data corruption
Can fixed record be efficient with no moving the reliability of the image records itself?
Accidental deletion
If image records are migrate to an innovative file format, may textbook metadata relocation be definite? If images are not transfer to a new record design and the offered record can’t be open, then any fixed metadata will probably be unapproachable also. Metadata is drop throughout copied manufacture or other upholding behavior.
Reference: Julian BirkinshawJordan Cohen. (2013). Make Time for the Work That Matters.
Question 4: Advanced RAID properties
In RAID, each controller is associated with a group of disks. We can use many controllers, each associated with their own group of disks. “Orthogonal RAID” organizes parity disks in such a way that they are spread across groups associated with orthogonal hardware.
(a) Why does one care about orthogonal RAID? The RAID survey from class discussed two benefits. Explain both. Answer Raid tools present several important reward like a storage medium: Reasonable option to mass storage space High throughput and dependability The key works of a RAID System are:
Put of disk drives, disk arrays, outlook with consumer as one or more rational drive.
Data can be dispersed across drive
Job loss additional in order to permit for disk breakdown
(b) I claim that the Backblaze storage pod is not designed to withstand the types of failures motivating orthogonal RAID. In fact, Backblaze’s storage business must not care if an entire storage pod is lost. Do you agree with this statement? Either defend it, or refute it based on facts from the case study.
Storage Pod 4.0 is a large removal from before side. Backblaze controls from a 5-drive backplane plan to “individual direct wire SATA/Power connectors.” Two 40-port SATA 3 HighPoint Rocket 750” (Paul Krzyzanowski, 2010) cards put back the old three 4-port SATA card system.
Newer, well-organized Intel Core i3-3240 processors (22nm “Ivy Bridge”) take the place of the previous generation’s Core i3-3240 (32nm “Sandy Bridge”) CPUs. The corporation moreover cut the number of control supplies from two to an only unit able of provide sufficient authority for every the system’s hard drives and other workings.
References: Paul Krzyzanowski. (2010). A NoSQL massively parallel table. BigTable.

Question 5: MapReduce Workers
Which of the following statements about the MapReduce system are true:
(a) A MapReduce job will complete even if one of the worker nodes fails.
o True o False Explain:
True: A Hadoop cluster contains an only master and several slaves’ nodes. The master node has “JobTracker, TaskTracker, NameNode and DataNode.” (Jason Cooper, 2009). A slave node acts like equally a DataNode and TaskTracker, while it is probable to have data-only slave’s nodes and multiply worker nodes. If any single slaves or worker nodes fails then MapReduce job is auto fail.
(b) A MapReduce job will complete even if the master node fails.
o True o False Explain:
Answer False: For efficient working, each Hadoop-compatible file structure must offer location responsiveness: the identity of the stand (more exactly, of the system switch) where a slaves node is. so if the master node fails MapReduce will not be completed.
(c) Map workers send their results directly to reduce workers.
o True o False Explain:
True: Our research specify that facts workers expend a great agreement of their time—an standard of 41%—on optional behavior that present little individual approval and may be handle capably with others. Consequently why do they stay doing them? Since elimination oneself of employment is easier said than completed. We impulsively stick to responsibilities that build us sense hard and consequently significant, as our boss, frequently determined to do more by less, pile on like several tasks as we’re prepared to believe.
(d) If there are M map tasks, using more than M map workers may improve MapReduce performance.
o True o False Explain:
True: When the user initiates a MapReduce task, a single master will be created and it is responsible for assigning tasks to workers and keeping track of the progress. The mappers will take split input and generate intermediate outputs to feed the reducers. The reducers will write final results to one or multiple files. Under the case of worker failure, the master will simply reschedule that part of work. However, the whole task will be aborted if the master fails. The user could initiate the task again. Last, the paper mentions several useful refinements they made including locality optimization, skipping bad records, and redundant execution.
References: Jason Cooper. (2009). How Entities and Indexes are Stored. Google App Engine.
Question 6: Map Functions
In the MapReduce framework, Map functions are required to be side-effect free, deter¬ministic and idempotent. What are the repercussions if a job has side effects? What are the repercussions if a job is non-deterministic? What benefits of the MR framework are undermined if jobs are non-idempotent? Answer
If the function has effects, it may add up on individual called initial on every essentials figure 0, and then on every that number 1, and so on. The kind of the effect sequence is particular with the discussion result-type (that should be a subtype of the kind series), since for the function force. In adding, single may identify nil for the consequence kind, importance that no consequence order is to be formed; in this case the purpose is invoke only for result, and map output nil. This provides a result related to that of map. Benefits of the MR framework are undermined if jobs are non-idempotent is:
• A clear expression of the dealing behavior a compact is keen to keep in and the stage of risk it is prepared to suppose
• An sympathetic of every matter hazard taken through the compact, both by the company element level and in collective References: UNIBLUE. (2013). Where is the best place to store data?. Tech Articles.
Question 7: CAP
Consider the following hotel reservation systems:
• Cozy Hotels sometimes overbooks their hotels, but someone always answers the phone.
• Awesome Hotels sometimes gives you a busy signal when you call them, but when you can get through they are reliable.
• Pleasant Hotels always books your stay reliably, but you sit on hold for an indefinite period of time before you get a reservation confirmation.

Make up a story abut how each system is implemented that would explain the above observations. Describe each hotel reservation strategy in terms of CAP tradeoffs.
Note: Make up whatever story you want, so long as it demonstrates your understanding of CAP and could explain the observations. State how many call centers each has, how many people work in each, etc. Assume only pen-and-pencil book-keeping and telephones for communication, in your stories. Make your explanation as simple as possible; no extra complexity for realism please.
Scientific setting, we are observer a tough and rising wish to range scheme out when extra capital (compute, storage space, etc.) are wanted to effectively total workloads in a rational time outline. This is proficient during addition extra product hardware to an organization to switch the amplified stack. As a consequence of this extent plan, an additional price of difficulty is incurred in the structure. This is what the CAP theorem approach in participate.
The CAP Theorem condition to, in a spread organization (a set of consistent nodes to split records.), you may only contain two out of the next three assurances transversely a write/read matchup: reliability, accessibility, and divider acceptance – single of them should be give up. Though, see in diagram, you don’t have like several choice here like you may feel.

Consistency – A interpret is certain to go back the mainly new write for an agreed client.
Availability – A non-failing node will go back a sensible reply by a sensible sum of moment.
Partition Tolerance – The structure will carry on functioning when system partition occurs.
We want to set single thing directly. There are supposition that we get for decided when structure purpose that share memory, that fail nodes are tear crossways space and time. Reference: KODI. (2014). HOW-TO:Backup the video library.

Question 8: BigTable Operations
You are using BigTable to store the following video rental inventory data:
(a) You execute rent(“Beaches:dvd”, 1). Your program crashes somewhere during execution. What are the possible states of the “Beaches:dvd” row in the table? Explain: Answer Bigtable executes many sevral features that agree to the user to influence records in more compound behavior. First, Bigtable executes single-row dealings, which may be used to carry out “atomic read-modify-write” (Harrison Hoffman, 2007). series on records accumulate under an only row key. Bigtable does not now maintain general transactions crossways row keys, though it offer UI for batching writes crossways row key by the customers. Second, Bigtable let Beaches:dvd to use like an digit counter. Finally, Bigtable helps the execution of all possible states to deal by spaces of the servers. (b) You execute rent (“Beaches:vhs”, 2). The program completes. Immedi¬ately after the program completes, the power goes out in the data center, and all the machines reboot. When BigTable recovers, what are the possible states of the “Beaches:vhs” row in the table? Explain: Answer To states reboot power Beaches:vhs and program break down, a system have to keep data on reasonable media, like disks and flash recollection. Single data store on reasonable media will live reboot. (Reboot is a delightful solution for several impermanent crashes.) However durable media cannot lookout next to enduring failure. That needs duplication, where the scheme stays several copy of the records: backup, essentially. If the records are stored numerous times, on some geographically distributed PCs, then simply a main disaster will reason information loss. Reference: Harrison Hoffman. (2007). Six places to store your files online. Tech Culture.
Question 9: GFS / BigTable Relationship
The CAP properties of BigTable are directly linked to those of GFS, because BigTable utilizes GFS to hold its state at each chunk server. In particular, BigTable operations have pretty strong consistency, because GFS has this property.
(a) Pretend that GFS only had read-your-own-writes consistency (a weaker consistency guarantee). For example, when node 1 appends to a chunk, the view of that chunk by node 2 may not immediately reflect the result of node 1’s operation. Claim: under this scenario, BigTable no longer has the same consistency properties described in its paper. Do you agree with this claim? If so, give examples of scenarios during correct operation or under failure explaining your conclusions. If you disagree, explain your reasoning. Use a clear diagram for your scenarios, if it helps.
GFS control their search engine, is comparable to BigTable by a tunable constancy representation and no master (central server). BigTable is intended by semi-structured data storage space in intellect. It is a huge map that is indexed with a row input, column input, and a timeline. Every value inside the map is a collection of bites that is understand with the request. Each read or write of records to a row is single, anyway of how much distinct columns are examine or insert in that row.
(b) Again, pretend that GFS only had read-your-own-writes consistency. Propose controls you might add to the design of BigTable (but not GFS) that ensure the resulting system has the consistency properties described in the original BigTable paper (or stronger ones). Explain the full repercussions of your proposal. Use a clear diagram, if it helps.
BigTable controls via numerous of Google function, like web indexing, MapReduce, that are frequently utilize for make and change record stored “in BigTable, Google Maps, Google Book Search, “My Search History”, Google Earth,, Google Code hosting, YouTube, and Gmail.” (KP Krishna Kumar, 2014) Google’s motives for rising its own record consist of scalability and improved manage of presentation individuality. Reference: KP Krishna Kumar* and G Geethakumari. (2014). Detecting misinformation in online social networks using cognitive psychology.

Question 10: BigTable Transactions
From the paper, BigTable does not support general transactions across rows.
Your script-savvy colleague suggests that using a script to chain together a series of individual row transactions using a bash script is as good as multi-row transactions with BigTable. Your design-savvy colleague tells you that this suggestion does not have the same properties as a multi-row transaction.
Who is right? What are the properties of BigTable’s row operations that would impact your conclusion? Explain your answer in terms of what could happen during a multi-row batch operation that makes it transactional or non-transactional.
Script-savvy is multi-row transactions with BigTable that is used in a language developed by Google method named as Sawzall. By that instant, our Sawzall-based API will not tolerate user scripts to inscribe back by Bigtable, however it’s do permit several appearance of record alteration, clean support on arbitrary language, and summarization by a selection of worker. Reference (2014). Explore flu trends – United States. National.
Question 11: Google Infrastructure
Google issues a statement tomorrow claiming it cannot delete your data quickly, and that it might take more than a month to purge the data you’ve marked for deletion to really disappear. Using your knowledge of BigTable, GFS, and general information man¬agement processes in an enterprise, explain why this statement is likely true. Mention all the places your data and metadata could be cached, saved, backed up, etc using your understanding of those systems.
All the places your data and metadata could be cached, saved, backed up, etc using your understanding of those systems are:
Disk Defragmentation
Conventional hard-drives create employ of a space to magnetically safe records. Hard-drive space is prepared in group that may every store a convinced amount of records.
File compression
Files accumulate on a hard drive be inclined to get more break than is severely essential. Records recurrence is general place by a case (believe of how they use in any agreed statement document) and its practice may be securely restricted during file compression.
Disk Cleaning
Drawers have a custom of build up garbage till then it develops into a physical confront to slide them unlock
Every cloud has a storage lining
Cloud Storage is a future tool that resolves several of the logistic problems nearby records distribution and accessibility. Reference: Deloitte. (2014). The Benefits of Implementing a Risk Appetite Framework.
Question 12: Google Flu Trends
Representatives from the CDC report that the current Google Flu model is performing well across the U.S. The head of a U.S.-based relief effort believes that, due to the model’s validation in experiments with the US, relief efforts will be designed around Google’s flu model’s predictions for data collected from queries originating in other countries. The list of target countries include both Mexico and the Philippines, for which no correlating CDC data exist. The relief efforts involve shipping and stockpiling flu treatment in response to early spikes in flu incidents reported by the model. The agency asks you for a recommendation on this policy.
(a) What factors do you believe might impact the soundness of the model in those countries?
First incentive for GFM is that individual talented to recognize validation movement early on and relief rapidly can decrease the affect of recurring data collection. One statement is that Google Flu Trends is capable to forecast area occurrence of flu more than 10 days earlier than they are inform with CDC.
(b) What risks may be associated with this effort, if the model is incorrect? What small-scale efforts (small, relative to a national relief effort) could be employed to ameliorate possible risks?
Google Flu Trends struggle to keep away from privacy infringement with only collective millions of unidentified explore inquiry, with no reorganization of persons that do the search. Their investigate log hold the IP address of the user, that may be used to draw back to the area where the search query is initially present. Google executes programs on system to keep and work out the records; consequently no manual work is concerned in the procedure. Google also apply the strategy to anonymize IP address in their out logs later than 9 months. Reference: DANIEL ABADI. (2010). Problems with CAP, and Yahoo’s little known NoSQL system. My problems with CAP.
Question 13: Machine Learning
A 2010 research paper from Yahoo! investigated data mining Twitter, comparing how correct and false information spread across the network. They analyzed tweets during the 2010 earthquake in Chile. They found that the way rumors and misinformation spread (like Ricardo Arjona is dead) was different from tweets about actual incidents that could be considered news or actionable data (small aircraft with six people crashes near Concepci´on). The research “seeks to contribute towards a deeper understanding of valid news and baseless rumors during a disaster.”
(a) In “The Unreasonable Effectiveness of Data” paper, the authors advo¬cate leveraging “unsupervised learning on unlabeled data, which is so much more plentiful than labeled data.” Do you think the idea of detecting misinformation an example of Norvig’s suggestion (i.e., using lots and lots of unlabeled data to dif¬ferentiate misinformation from valid news)? Or does it undermine the suggestion (i.e., expressing that data lacking veracity is unsuitable for use)? Answer The discovery of propaganda in huge amount of records is a demanding charge. Technique applying “machine learning and Natural Language Processing (NLP)” (Robert Greiner, 2014) method live to mechanize the procedure to several extents. Though, since of the semantic natural world of the inside, the correctness of automated technique is imperfect and quite frequently need physical involvement. (b) Describe briefly the difference between supervised and unsupervised learn¬ing using the idea of “rumors vs. news” in Twitter. What are the ‘labels’ in this scenario? Answer Supervised: Labels are known and you attempt to study how to forecast/representation them. Example: Rumors – Study how to forecast if a Twitter will not get more customer because of limited features Unsupervised: Labels are not agreed and you aim to remove information in common out of your records Example: News – How many distinct issue faced by users In Twitter? Reference: Robert Greiner. (2014). CAP Theorem: Revisited.

Experiential learning








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Student Name










What is experiential learning? Why do you think this type of learning model is successful? Can you think of any examples in your own life of experiential learning?

These are some of the responses that emerged from the discussion. Experiential learning is a type of learning that promotes active learning where students able to motivate learning experience. Through experiential learning, the student’s minds are brightened up. One way in which it occurs is through volunteering as hands on is very important to learn. Through volunteering students are able to gain experience and to earn.

During the discussion, one student was able to give an example of their volunteer experience as a math teacher, where he had to describe math in different ways such as explaining the different kinds of volume and explaining the activity through different kinds of activities. This helped the rest of the students understand the concept behind experiential learning through volunteering. By showing them how to do it, they learn more. It allows the students a better career opportunity as it empowers them to do it themselves. Experiential Learning is only effective after a certain age. Give students a voice, own learning and be successful. The group discussed how some kids do not like experiential learning where some kids enjoy it and want to do it.

One of the best ways in which one can understand experiential learning is through the quote “I hear and I forget, I see and I remember, I do and I understand.” Therefore, experiential learning needs to be done under the right conditions. There must be feedback from the learners to make sure they understand. This type of learning is therefore active and not passive.

According to Diang, failing students is essential to the learning process, what do you think about teacher allowing, even encouraging, students to fail as part of the learning process? Is this a good idea or bad idea? Is failing students is better than not failing them at all?

From the discussion, it emerged that it is good to fail. The students were of this opinion and they said that one is able to learn from failure. As a teacher, I am supposed to impose and show to student that failing is ok and that failure is not bad. Teachers need to accept the failure process and let students be aware that it is ok to fail. There was one captivating answer from the group as one student was able to describe FAIL as- (First attempt of learning).

The reason why some teachers feel pressure not to fail students is because they want to stay tight to the curriculum. It’s no shame to acknowledge a previous failure – in fact, the ability to recognize your own failings and learn from them is an important quality and will work in your favor, as long as you demonstrate the right attitude towards such experiences. Failures usually provide us with our greatest lessons, and the ability to learn from them shows maturity, self-awareness and an ability to grow. Teachers are also under pressure to make student pass exams and assessment tests, because the performance of their learners in these test scores is one of the indicators for their effectiveness as teachers. Therefore, the pressure to pass exists from in both parties the teachers and the students. However, as discussed, it is important to make students understand that failure is ok as it offers good learning lessons.


Diana mentions her adaptive teaching styles throughout her career (she gave 3 examples; Experiential learning, empowering students, and embracing failure). Why Diana’s open- minded views are beneficial in teaching students?

The teachers have to adapt to these teaching styles because it is beneficial. It is a learning process cycle that every student needs to experience. Traditional learning is not effective and society now has different learning abilities that are adaptive to each individual’s needs.

Do you think teachers must feel comfortable to allow their students to fail or to help students think take action and apply for example when the teacher has to develop the awareness, unfold the stories and create the necessary links for the students .

It emerged from the discussion that teachers act as a guide and that they ought to guide the students a bit and not too much. When a teacher specifically mention to students that they have restrictions then they might get disappointed and not explore it the way they want to.

How do you think the information delivery systems in each generation change the way students interact with the information and how does it influence the approach to learning in general?

What to do with knowledge, kids can have it everywhere, knowledge can get access to anywhere for children. Back then, there were as many choices and options. Now days there are more options and learning opportunities. Kids before had a set of rules to follow and get the work done based on the guidelines, now days kids can express themselves more and have more say into what they would like to do or enjoy doing. Kids now do not know how to paraphrase of what they will do. Classrooms look much different than before, now there are more diverse students and immigrant families in the classroom that have all the stuff to take an account whereas back then there was just specific material to teach compare to now there are different aspects to teach.

Think about a time you failed at something. Do you think you learned more when you tried to do it again the next time?

One student gave example and this is what she said. If you fail when you are still young you will learn even more then when you become older. For example when I was in Kindergarten, one year before school started they checked the kids that were supposed to go to school. They told my parents I wasn’t creative enough, so I had to take extra classes. Then When I finally came to the school in 2 and 3 grade I won an art price for paintings I had made. So I learned that failure can help you succeed even though you might be worried at first.


Part 3

The students have also participated in several community services that lean towards learning. This would make it easier for the tutor or instructor to teach while making references to some of these experiences that students have had. Through the awareness of their experiential level, all the diverse practices of experiential education can be linked together into something coherent. The students also have different development levels. I established that the some bright students have been able to maintain their competency beginning from the lower grades. For those who perform well, they have also maintained the same standards over time. Similarly for the students who have low performances, their competency has been constant. Although there are a few instances where some students show impressive improvement in their academic performance through experiential learning, there is usually a general consistency in performance of each student

There is a lot involved in the learning process of students. Education is considered to be both a complex and a cumulative process, and there are numerous factors that influence learning. The school condition has an apparent impact on learning. The environment outside school and the learning experiences at home have a significant influence on the overall learning outcome of a student. The community, summer programs, the internet, and peers are among other factors identified to influence learning (Banks 67).

Throughout their education process, students have also passed through a number of teachers. Prior teachers have an influence in the outcome of the scores. The learning experiences in earlier grades have a lasting effect on student’s learning in their later grade levels. Similarly, whatever a student learns from his or her English teacher influences what they learn in history or any other subject taught in English where students are required to write essays. The case is the same for mathematics because it greatly influences student performance in other subjects that require numerical skills. All these provide learners with different experiences to influences their learning. The classroom and school conditions vary and are not similar in all schools. Some classrooms have a student to teacher ratio that is unmanageable while others have manageable student to teacher ratio. Other schools have more resources and are well equipped than others. At home, there is also a variation in resources which significantly influences students learning outcome (Schwalbe 23).











Banks, J. A., & Banks, C. A. Multicultural education: Issues and perspectives. Hoboken: John Wiley & Sons., 2007.

Schwalbe, Michael. Rigging the Game: How Inequality is Reproduced in Everyday Life. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2008. Print.


Please follow the guidelines below, the guidelines were not followed for the assignment at all

  • You need to start the discussion with the students names that were present in the discussion ( I and the other 7 students had a discussion about the video )
  • The video is your main resource. Have you watched the video?
  • Introduce the topic and give a detail summary about the video.
  • Then start the discussion, of each role that the student present during discussion (which I send through email, did you receive that?)
  • And as you are writing the discussion paper, you need to incorporate the question and answers into the written discussion as well (Your answers to the questions were written well but needs to put together well)
  • Every part needs to be incorporate with one another in the discussion


Please read the below description of how critical analysis is written. It will give you a better understanding of it. This assignment is worth a lot, I just wanted it to be well done, please bare with me and follow the instructions. It is a bit confusing in the beginning but if you read the instructions over and over again, you will understand it more.


Definition of a critical Review:

A critical review as discussed in this chapter is a formal academic or professional critical review.  It is a formal discussion of the contents, implications, and quality of an academic or professional text: a nonfiction book, essay, or article.  Sometimes non-text materials, such as educational videos, also are discussed using this formal model of reviewing.  A critical review is not a book report, nor is it a literary analysis, literary review , movie review, or other arts review that works with the elements of literature or art.  Rather, a critical review is a thorough, usually formal discussion that uses a variety of critical-thinking tools, especially (a) logical, accurate summary; (b) discussion or analysis of arguments, implications, and responses; and (c) evaluative weighing of the quality of the writing, organization, and contents.

Examples of critical reviews are most common in simple, less formal versions appearing in newspapers and magazines: of educational nonfiction books with contents organized by subject matter (not in story form).  Such reviews summarize the content of the text being reviewed, discuss various opinions or possible responses from the public, and evaluate how well the text has been developed.  Examples of formal–academic or professional–reviews often can be found in the latter half of academic and professional journals and magazines.  A formal review often discusses two, three, or more texts on a single subject at the same time, thus enabling the reviewer to compare and contrast several works.  Like a newspaper review, a professional or academic review summarizes the contents of the works reviewed.  However, in discussing opinions, it often does not worry as much about public opinions and responses but rather those of experts in the field.  And in evaluating the quality of the works reviewed, the value and method of research often is considered much more important than the quality of the writing

Writer’s goal for assignment

The goal of writing a critical review is to help readers decide whether to read or view a text.  Summarizing gives readers a thoughtful, unbiased account of what the work says.  Opinions from the public or experts help readers understand how the work might be perceived from several differing viewpoints.  And evaluation of quality helps readers decide whether the work is presented well.  Most reviews follow this pattern of three functions by starting with summary and ending with evaluation, but there are not always clear-cut sections: the types of thinking may even be thoroughly intermixed.  However, if you wish to write a simple critical review with all of its major structural elements in it, you can simply develop your review in three body sections: summary of the work; arguments, responses, and/or implications; and evaluative judgments.  If your instructor allows it, you also may have a brief first section, after the introduction, that reports on the issue’s history or background, though many instructors expect their students to mix pertinent background information into the general discussion.

If you need an online reading, go to links.  If at all possible, choose a subject in your area or field of interest, one about which you know something or can research easily.  Whether you choose your reading or it is chosen for you, be sure to summarize its contents thoroughly in your own words.  Then decide what kinds of opinion you will discuss: public responses and viewpoints, experts’ responses and viewpoints,  implications, or all three.  Then use a set of criteria to judge–fairly and in a balanced manner–the quality of the text’s writing and research.  Enclose your writing with a brief introduction and conclusion.  If you are writing a research paper, be sure to include quotations and/or paraphrases from additional sources.  These quotations and/or paraphrases should support your points of discussion, should be  substantial in quality and quantity, and should come from authoritative sources.  Also attach a bibliography appropriate to your field, discipline, or profession.

If you are writing a research paper, each body section must include quotations, paraphrases, and/or illustrations and other visual materials from your required and optional sources.  These source materials should support your own points of discussion in your paper, should be  substantial in quality and quantity, and should come from authoritative sources.  Also attach a bibliography appropriate to your field, discipline, or profession.




Assignment 3: Cultural Activity Report











Assignment 3: Cultural Activity Report










Assignment 3: Cultural Activity Report

Museum exploration is one of the best ways students connect the theoretical concepts in class with the visual found in various museums. Visiting a museum has been one of the things I have admired for long. I always view a visit to the museum as a way of absorbing other cultures and a way of fascinating the senses. I and my friends planned to visit the museum on Saturday 14th March. Upon the arrival, we met with the guards who conducted a security check and welcomed us.

My experience at the museum had many mixed reactions. I was excited, anxious and hopeful. The mixed reactions were not because of many security checks and the big clouds of people but because of excitement and eager to learn. Upon setting foot in the museum, one notices a wide array of the colorful diversity of various cultures of the world.  Everything to be considered artful was on display, the armor, weapons, sculptures, art, and accessories among other artworks. Visiting this museum makes one appreciate every culture where the exhibits provide the visitor with a deeper insight into an understanding of origin and evolution.

In this museum, no culture is presented to be more superior or inferior to the others. Differences of various cultures are illustrated using food, houses, artwork, accessories and foods. Among many interesting sculptures that I viewed, the crown of thorn is the one that I liked the most. This sculpture is made up of iron rings that have many nails that are woven into them. On a closer look, one notice that the rings placed on the prisoner’s skull where the nails pierce it. The prisoner facial emotions are sad, and his eyes were looking downwards. The sculpture shows the prisoner grievous emotions as he was going through the torture. Viewing this sculpture initiates one to identify with the era of slavery and torture.

Another sculpture that caught my eye is a piece that was named the American women where a woman is presented holding a kid. For years, the American women have been known to pursue their careers as in some cases neglecting the family (Parvis, 2013). The sculpture is dated 1983.10.7. According to the staff, the sculpture was dedicated to women and the society. At a closer look, the woman is portrayed protecting the infant from danger. The meaning of the sculpture is that, as the society, we should protect the children.

The experience of the museum was an intriguing one. I now appreciate the work the mothers did and got to understand the pain that the slaves could have gone through. Other things that I enjoyed include tasting various food, dances, exquisite pieces of art, and I bought some accessories of different cultures. All the pieces in this museum are beautiful without question.

In conclusion, the design of this modern art museum is something amazing. The museum has collaborated both traditional and modern approach in museum design. This design employs a user’s friendly layout that is believed to enhance the experience. The modern layout has provided a layout with a better esthetic and social experience thought the visit (Parvis, 2013). Using this idea, the visitor can capture the beliefs and values the artwork is communication. The visit to this museum was an opportunity to discover and experience wonders of artwork studied in the humanities classes.





Parvis, L. (2013). Understanding cultural diversity in today’s complex world. Morrisville, NC: Lulu Press.











Job advertisement

Jade Consultants

The company seeks to hire an experienced administrative assistant; the chosen candidate will report to the manager. The employment is on a full-time basis, and one is expected to work forty hours per week. The assistant will work in our head office in Virginia, and their salary is negotiable.

The representative will be responsible for executing administrative policies and procedures; he/she is expected to:

  1. Create and revise procedures by analyzing record-keeping systems, office layout, budgetary and personal requirements and the operating practices of the business.
  2. Provide information and academic opportunities in a bid to develop the skills of other staff members.
  3. Take charge of the supplies inventory. He/she will check the level of stock, place the order for supplies and verify the arrival of supplies.
  4. Ensures the equipment in the company is working, and it is well maintained. He/she will also call for repairs on damaged equipment and acquire information on new or improved equipment.
  5. Organize the preparation of reports, data analysis and identifying solutions to critical problems faced by the company.

The interested applicants need the following qualifications:

  1. Previous experience of work as an administrative assistant for more than three years
  2. Advanced level of knowledge in the use of Microsoft word and proper typing skills
  3. Strong communication skills to assist in coordinating fellow employees and organizing events.
  4. Excellent interpersonal skills to enhance better relations with other employees.
  5. Strong organization skills and being attentive to detail.
  6. College diploma or a degree in business administration or an equivalent qualification is desired

Those interested in this job, please send us your resume to or contact us through our website.

Sending of applications closes on 30th March 2015

Illegal questions in an interview

  1. How long has your family been in the US?

This question seeks to know the citizenship of your candidate; this might lead him to think that there is a particular preference for other citizens than that from his/her country. It might also seem that you are trying to find out about their ancestry; this might offend some of the interviewees. Some people are sensitive to the general assumptions of their ancestry.

  1. Are you planning to have children?

This question seeks to clarify about family obligations, but it is based on assumptions that the candidate is planning to have children. This inquiry might make them think they will be discriminated due to their preference for having children.

  1. Do you have any disability?

Mental and physical disability may affect a candidate’s ability to perform his/her duties. This question, however, may cause the employer to shun disabled people who can do the job; due to other disabilities that will not affect their capabilities.

  1. What is your religion?

There are certain stereotyping views that particular beliefs are affiliated with carry. All of us have a freedom to practice our religion freely without been discriminated. Asking such questions may make the interviewee uncomfortable as they may be shunned due to their religious affiliations. This issue is in violation of the civil acts right of 1964 which protects people from religious discrimination in employment.

  1. How old are you?

Knowledge of an applicant’s age may make you discriminate him based on it. Young people are less experienced than the elderly. This inquiry is likely to give a particular perception of employee treatment (Saks, 2006). It is also illegal to discriminate employees based on age.

  1. Have you been discharged from the military dishonorable?

Some people are discharged from the military in a less honorable fashion due to various issues. However, in a corporate situation they might be able to work in a better way. Improper discharge is not a good way to disapprove people’s work ethics due to their military past.

  1. What are your views on office dating?

While this problem may cause distractions among other issues in the workplace, it is quite illegal to ask such questions as it is a private issue. This issue might also seem as if you are interested in the interviewee. It may make the candidate to be discriminated due to his or her views on the topic.


  1. Do you use drugs or alcohol?

Drugs and alcohol may affect one’s capabilities in performing certain duties. Your applicant may even think you are asking about a prescription drug which is illegal to ask. You are allowed to show concern only for illicit drug use and if it will affect their work. This inquiry violates the Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990 (Giang, 2013).

  1. How much do you weigh?

This question is an embarrassment to most people who are sensitive about their weight. It may also seem like you prefer candidates with a particular weight. It is illegal to shun someone in an interview due to their weight even if it may affect their work capabilities.

  1. Can you perform this job well since you are a man/woman?

This question is very sensitive to most people due to the level of stereotyping it holds. People were discriminated in the past based on their gender and bring legal consequences to the one asking the question (Arvey, 1979). It is illegal and unprofessional to single out people based on their gender.

Legal questions that may be asked

  1. Are you authorized to work in the US?

This particular question does not seek to raise any doubt on preference. It merely clarifies the eligibility of the candidate to work in the US; which may cause problems if the applicant is not authorized.

  1. What days are you able to work?

The question will avoid asking about religious affiliations and will explain what days the person is available and why.

  1. Are you over the age of 18?

The question will remove doubts about any age discrimination that another issue might bring. It only seeks to know whether the person is of the legal age required for employment

  1. Can you travel to distant places on short notice?

Such an inquiry will reveal the family and personal obligation that someone has without giving any assumptions.

  1. What are your long-term career goals?

The inquiry seeks to establish if the person wants to work with the company on a full-time basis. It may be asked if one wishes to inquire about the commitment level of employees. This question applies to pregnant women in to avoid direct questioning of her expectancy; which may be against the civil rights act of 1991 (Gerken, 1993)

It seeks to disclose the strengths of a candidate as opposed to weaknesses such as weight, age or gender. It will remove any bias regardless of the mentioned qualities

  1. Do you use illegal drugs?

This inquiry specifies the type of drugs that the employer does not want in its candidate. There are particular problems that may arise from illicit drug use.

  1. Are you able to do the job’s requirement well?

This question directly asks the ability of the candidate to perform the work instead of asking about his inabilities to do the same. It will clarify whether a person’s disability may affect their work output. The person has a right to disclose at a time of his/her preference (Hebl, 2005)

  1. Are you willing to relocate to the company’s area?

It may be necessary for a person to transfer if their dwelling place is far from the businesses location. This concern will show that you will consider them regardless of where they are living.

  1. How will your military experience benefit the company?

Their military background may be invaluable to the enterprise. Any other information concerning dismissal from the army may be voluntarily given.









Arvey, R. D. (1979). Unfair preferences in Job Interviews: Legal and psychological aspects. Psychological Bulletin, 86(4), 736.

Gerken, H. K. (1993). Comprehending the  mixed-motives claims by the Civil Rights Act of 1991: An analysis of intentional discrimination claims based on sex-stereotyped interview questions. Michigan Law Review, 1824-1853.

Giang, V. (2013, July 5). 11 Typical Interview Questions That Are Illegal. Retrieved March 20, 2015, from Business Insider:

Hebl, M. R., & Skorinko, J. L. (2005). Accepting Physical Disability in Interviews: Does “When” Make a Difference?. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 35(12), 2477-2492.

Saks, A. M., & McCarthy, J. M. (2006). The consequences of discriminatory interview questions and gender on applicant reactions. Journal of Business and Psychology, 21(2), 175-191.